ECMO are designed in two different concepts. The machine which remains connected to a vein and an artery and is employed to address problems related to the heart and lungs refers to VA ECMO. Similarly, the VV ECMO is joined to one or more veins, generally near the heart, and is deployed to treat a problem related to the lungs.
Before the procedure, the patient is anesthetized and given pain therapeutic as well as anti-coagulant in order to reduce blood clotting. A surgeon outfitted with the team, introduces the ECMO catheters into the artery or veins. Meanwhile, an x-ray is taken to make sure that the tubing is inserted in the right place. While on the ECMO mechanism, the patient is constantly monitored by highly expert respiratory therapists, nurses, and the surgical team. Since the patient is sedated and also has a breathing tube, all supplemental nutrition are introduced through a nasal gastric tube or though intravenous mechanisms.
Where ECMO Is Needed
Whereas patients recovering from heart surgery, heart failure or lungs collapse;
In the process of assessing the conditions of organs like the brain and kidneys before advancing to the heart or lung surgery;
To undergo high-risk medical procedures organized in the cardiac catheterization lab.
For patients who are in need of lung transplantation. The ECMO helps in keeping tissues well oxygenated while making the patient a stable condition during the transplant procedure.
ECMO Machine- A Solution For Managing COVID 19 Patients
Under the COVID-19 pandemic, The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has meanwhile issued a regulation in order to expand the accessibility of the ECMO machines. The whole idea is to offer extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) based therapy to a fast increasing number of victims with novel coronavirus, COVID-19.
ECMO systems are chiefly used to address long-lasting respiratory as well as cardiopulmonary failure. It can provide needed extracorporeal circulation in addition to physiologic gas exchange of the patient’s blood for a period of more than six hours. In thorough researches, it’s has been found that the technology can effectively oxygenate an extremely ill COVID-19 pneumonia patient’s blood without having the need to transmit the oxygen through congested fluid-filled lungs.
Being a critical respiratory syndrome, COVID-19 can activate severe respiratory failure in addition to acute cardiopulmonary failure. Under these conditions, in its new guidelines, the FDA recommends to use ECMO device for more than 6 hours depending on the acuity state for treating patients. The FDA recognizes the significance and deployment of ECMO mechanisms in the COVID-19 emergency.
The FDA has also included a series of medical tools and devices identified by it as being scientifically capable to use in ECMO therapy when employed for COVID-19 patients. It is also important to mention that the WHO has already recommended ECMO machines ( https://covid19.mybiogate.com/product/ ) for the management of COVID-19 patients.